Saturday, 11 December 2021

Could Botulinum Toxin be Turned to Beneficial Substance? - Part 4 – Science 10

You may read the previous postinga (Part 1, 2 and 3):
- Could Botulinum Toxin be Turned to Beneficial Substance? - Part 1 – Science 10

Fig 01- Rice, a dish in many countries.

Why does the toxin lethal and deadly?

The toxin can cause the paralysis of peripheral neuromuscular junction, which is the junction between our nerve to the muscle.

The muscle or striated muscle will excited whenever the nerve release chemical substance acetylcholine.

Botulinum then inactive the protein that regulate release of acetylcholine. Because acetylcholine releasing is prevented by toxin, the muscle cannot excite anymore and becomes paralyze.

Fig 02- Chocolate, an illustration

Fig 03- Pickled eggs

Fig 04- Meat products and an egg

Fig 05- Seafood products at the market

Good news that engineers turned this lethal toxin to beneficial substance for many purposes.

The purified protein of botulinum toxin when administered by injection into the muscle, it can cause local paralyze.

Based on the concepts, this toxin is used in pharmacology for:

- certain disorders
- and also for specifically anti-wrinkle.

Now, I understand that botulinum toxin can be used:

- to cure and heal some diseases
- for cosmetic such as face rejuvenation.

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Thursday, 9 December 2021

The Best Tacos which I Love to Consume in Louisiana – Part 1 – Food 10

Taco Bell is well known franchise to sell taco across America and some parts of the world.

But, we have restaurants which sell special menus of tacos.

Yes, here in Louisiana, actually, we have plenty restaurants sell the best tacos

Fig 01- A Tinga taco is one of my favorites

The restaurants sell many kinds of tacos, and in addition to taco that some restaurants provide hundred of different type of menus.

In respect to taco, I love these four types:

- Tinga taco
- Veggie taco
- Baja fish taco
- Barbacoa taco

Chicken is one of my favorites, then match with sauces (tomatoes, chili), onion sliced, tostadas and beans.

This menu called as tinga taco.

Fig 02- A Taco wrap sold in Walmart

Fig 03- Cloudy weather, illustration only

Fig 04- Veggie taco

Veggie taco contains certain favorite stuff such as:

- cabbages
- spicy or hot stuff (peppers, chili, jalapenos)
- onions
- zucchini
- tomatoes
- cheese
- cilantro and black bean

Some time, veggie taco also includes with meat. Yes, thus, not really 100% veggie.

# To be Continued to Part 2

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Wednesday, 8 December 2021

Changes of Parents Behaviors When Caring a Baby – Part 2 - Science 11

You may read the previous post (Part 1):

Interestingly, female as well as male have the same changes when they take care the infants.

Fig 01- Decoration, just for fun

The changes in respects to:

- brain regions
- and hormonal activities

Their behavior’s changes to deal with new reality that is development of newborns in term of:

- crying
- hearing
- breathing
- sleeping
- reflexes
- and vision.

Fig 02- A cute rabbit, illustration

Fig 03- Painting by Ruth Stuart, local artist

Fig 04- A horse and baby, painted by Ruth Stuart

Fig 05- A little girl and a baby, painted by Ruth Stuart

However, as suggested by Johnston-Ataata and Kokanovic (2014) that most parents have wrong perceptions about having a new baby:

1) Parents misled by social romantic that are both parents and babies will have strong or perfect bonding instantly.

2) Parenthood is wonderful and joyful life event. The perceptions are totally different with reality sometimes.

# Previous postings:

Johnston-Ataata, K and Kokanovic, R. (2014, October 2). “Most new parents are totally unprepared for their new babies.” Retrieved from Washington Post.

Monday, 6 December 2021

Could Botulinum Toxin be Turned to Beneficial Substance? - Part 3 – Science 10

You may read previous postings (Part 1 and Part 2):

Fig 01- Fish balls, illustration.

As we know botulinum toxic have been identified as Foodborne botulism, Wound botulism, Infant botulism and Inhalation botulism.

1) Food borne botulism.

- It occurs by consuming food that contaminate with this kind of bacteria or their spore.
- The spore can germinate and produce toxin too.

2) Wound botulism

- It could be caused by the wound infection
- The open wound infected by the spores or bacteria.

Fig 02- Canned mackerel

Fig 03- Wild flower, just for illustration

Fig 04- Quesadilla, ready to consume

Fig 05- Processing food

3) Infant botulism.

- The baby ingests the spore and then in the baby's gut bacteria grow and release toxin.
- It infects the baby under 6 months.

4) Inhalation botulism

- when the person inhaled the botulinum concentrate (aerosolized), It intents to biology weapon or bioterrorism.

# To be continued to Part 4

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Saturday, 4 December 2021

What Autumn is Like in My Town, Baton Rouge LA – Part 2 - Nature 15

You may read previous posting: What Autumn is Like in My Town Baton Rouge LA – Part 1 - Nature 15

Our state, Louisiana faced very short of Autumn period. Starting around late September or October to the end of November or early December.

Just approximately two months only.

Fig 01- Different colors of trees.

Compared to upper or northern states, not much colors of leaves changing in Louisiana.

Many trees are evergreen in Louisiana, these trees include (Regina Sass, 2017: Evergreens That Will Grow in Louisiana):

- Atlas Cedar
- American Olive
- Japanese Plum
- Red Bay
- Swamp Bay

Fig 02- Bonsai, illustration only

Fig 03- An Autumn tree in neighborhood

Fig 04- One of Autumn tree

Fig 05- Leaves of trees start to fall down

Fig 06- Leaves are everywhere in neighborhood

Now early December already, many leaves have started to fall down. Our neighborhood looks so dirty.

Temperature may drop, especially in the night. We wear jacket to make little bit warm when going outside.

Moreover, the winter, even very short, from December to January. Only a small chance to have snow, no more than 3 times in the last 10 years.

A kind of miracle. Every bodies look very happy with snow, and snowmen seen at every corner of our city.

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Friday, 3 December 2021

Parents Behaviors When Caring a Baby – Part 1 - Science 11

Behavioral changes that define parenting are important for “successful” of future generations in life of any creatures, especially mammals.

Mother and father have different roles to raise their children.

Fig 01- Parents and a kid (credit to freepik).

Even though mother is dominant to accomplish care of young, but if father involve in caring a baby or babies, thus both parents have similar paternal and maternal behaviors.

Maternal behaviors in mammals may start before deliver baby to caring to parenting such as:

- nest building
- aggressive to intruders
- eating birth debris
- grooming and licking
- pups cleaning
- and nursing (breastfeeding).

Fig 02- Plant decoration, illustration

Fig 03- Walking path in the city

Fig 04- A doll, illustration only

Except breastfeeding, all these maternal behaviors could be done by father as well.

In case of human, in social context, especially in developing nations, parenting not only responsible to mother and father, but also to older brothers and sisters.

In many cases grandparents involve too.

Unrelated adults take care other’s offspring sometimes.

# To be continued to Part 2

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Thursday, 2 December 2021

What Autumn is Like in My Town Baton Rouge LA – Part 1 - Nature 15

I call “late autumn,” because our city, Baton Rouge, Louisiana just get the stage that leaves colors changing, and some leaves of trees start to fall down in the late November or early December this year .

Fig 01- Colorful autumn leaves

while in the northern parts of America the falling snow piled up more than 8.5 inches, and even snowstorm in several states

Top 10 snowiest states in the USA are following:

- Vermont
- Maine
- New Hampshie
- Colorado
- Alaska
- Michigan
- New York
- Massachusetts
- Wyoming
- Wisconsin

Fig 02- Trees in the corner of a park

Fig 03- Leaves changing colors from green to brown to red

Fig 04- One corners of my town during autumn season

Fig 05- Fall leaves

Fig 06- Fall in front of coffee shop.

Yes, temperature dropped below 0 degree Celsius (320 F) at night at the end of November this year (2021), but no snow yet.

Daylight temperature could reach 150 C (590 F). A quite nice weather for me.

You might wonder the different between night and day temperature is quite huge, about 15 degree Celsius.

I don’t know why.

This is typical southern part of USA. Many people got sick due to temperature different.

# To be continued to Part 2

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Unidentified Bird at the Neighborhood – Nature 76

We just have a visitor, quite difficult to identify. Several friends have different opinions about the species of the bird. Image 1- A Finch...