Showing posts with label Alzheimer. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Alzheimer. Show all posts

Tuesday 2 August 2022

Why does Gum Disease cause Alzheimer's?- Part 1 - Alzheimer's 8

Tau or neurofibrillary tangles protein is one of landmarks of the Alzheimer's disease. It is abnormal accumulation of protein in the brain cells.



Image 1- Porphyromonas gingivalis, bacteria cause the gum disease.

The abnormal conditions of Tau could spread from one neuron to another neuron.

Their patterns are exactly the same with the spreading of infections in many diseases as we know.

The researchers, Stephen Dominy and his colleagues, reported in ScienceAdvances (2019) that toxic enzymes from the bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis were found in Alzheimer’s brain patients.



Image 2- A mask, just for illustration



Image 3- Flowers in the garden, illustration

Moreover, the percentage quite higher that about 99 and 96 percent of 54 human Alzheimer’s brain samples correlated with tau and ubiquitin pathology.

Porphyromonas gingivalis is Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that produces virulence factor that we called gingipains, which is a protein-degrading enzyme.

This bacterium is well known for inflammatory diseases to cause destruction of tissues on tooth, and then make us loss our teeth.

The question then what is relationship bet ween teeth bacteria and Alzheimer’s diseases?

# To be continued to Part 2

# Previous postings:

Friday 15 July 2022

Factors Causing the Late Onset Alzheimer's Diseases – Part 2 - Alzheimer’s 7

You may read previous post (Part 1):

- Factors Causing the Late Onset Alzheimer's Diseases – Part 1 - Alzheimer’s 7



Image 1- Astrocyte (Neuroscience, Purves et al).

In our brain, APOE is mainly produced by astrocyte. Then, diseases associate with APOE may include:

- Multiple Sclerosis
- Parkinson's Disease
- Vascular Dementia
- Type 2 Diabetes Melitus
- Ischemia Stroke
- Type III Hyperlipoproteinemia. 



Image 2- Cloudy in our city

In the late onset Alzheimer's disease, there are three type APOEs:

- APOE2 is associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer's
- APOE3 the most common variant and is considered neutral
- APOE4 is associated with a greater risk.



Image 3- A yard, illustration only

The function of APOE is to regulate lipid transport from one cell type or tissue to another.



Image 4- Morning view at the corner

In our brain, APOE is mainly produced by astrocyte and its function is to transport cholesterol to our nerve cell (neuron) in the brain.

Whenever an imbalance between the production and clearance of beta-amyloid peptide in our brain, thus, the accumulation and aggregation of beta-amyloid will be occurred. This become a toxic in our brain.

This toxicity also depends on the paired helical filaments of the microtubuli-associated protein tau.

So, in the in the late onset Alzheimer's disease, the toxic in the brain destroy the nice balancing of healthy brain, prominently the two proteins which are called beta-amyloid and tau.

# Previous postings:

Tuesday 5 July 2022

Factors Causing the Late Onset Alzheimer's Diseases – Part 1 - Alzheimer’s 7

In previous posts, several signs of the early onset Alzheimer's dementia had been covered.



Image 1- The cartoon above is an illustration about a relationship of Brain and Heart that I pulled from the awkwardyetidotcom.

Now, it is about the late onset, the symptoms appear when a person in the mid 60s and later of age.

The exact causes of late onset are remaining unknown. The scientists believe the cause could be a combination of three factors:

- life style
- environment
- genetic.



Image 2- Wild fruits in the park



Image 3- Crowd people in the park

Genetic markers related to the late onset form of Alzheimer's disease is associated with chromosome 19.

The mutation genes that cause increase Apoliprotein E (APOE). A person who inherit one copy of the APOE e4 has a big chance for developing this disease.

APOE primarily produced by liver and macrophages, and APOE4 is associated with:

- hyperlipidaemia
- and hypercholesterolemia.

Generally, the APOE is associated with various conditions of disease progression, not only Alzheimer's Disease.

# Previous postings:

Thursday 9 June 2022

The Mutant Genes in the Early Onset Familial Alzheimer's – Part 2 - Alzheimer's 6

You may read the previous postings (Part 1):

- The Rainbow Before Evening : The Mutant Genes in the Early Onset Familial Alzheimer's – Part 1 - Alzheimer's 6



Image 1- Meme from Google, just for fun

The mutant genes in another autosomal dominant forms of Alzheimer's disease were in:

- chromosome 1
- and chromosome 14.

This mutations lead to abnormal Presenilin 1 and Presenilin 2, which modified amyloid precursor protein so that increase amount of toxic form of Aß peptide.

Presenilins are kind of catalytic protease complexes that directly cleave the amyloid precursor protein.



Image 2- Handmade jar, illustration



Image 3- Here, my fav lady who always make me smile (credit to Google)

A person who carrying Presenilin mutation shown an alteration different of variant of amyloid beta peptides in the cerebrospinal fluid.

Mutation of presenil 1 and presenil 2 modify processing of amyloid precursor protein the increasingly of particular toxic form of Aß peptide.

This mutation suspects a heritable form of Alzheimer's disease.

So, the signs of mutant genes that lead to early onset Alzheimer's disease is prominent amyloid deposit in the brain.

The abnormal process of amyloid precursor protein lead to what is called as: extracellular deposit.

The amyloid deposit is characteristic fibrils of amyloid beta peptide.

# Previous postings:

Thursday 2 June 2022

The Mutant Genes in the Early Onset Familial Alzheimer's – Part 1 - Alzheimer's 6

Previously, I posted about chromosomes related to the Alzheimer's disease and gene mutations as the genetic marker that believe to lead to this pathological disease.



Image 1- Simple talks of Alzheimer's patients


You may read previous postings (Part 1 and Part 2):

As we might know that the progressive declined in cognitive functions in Alzheimer's disease are associated with depositions of aggregated protein in form of extracellular plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain.



Image 2- Plants, just for illustration



Image 3- Dialogs of normal and Alzheimer’s person.

Early-onset Alzheimer's disease appears about in the thirties and mid-sixties of the age which are characterized by the mutation of single gene in any chromosome in chromosome 1, chromosome 14 and chromosome 21.

Long investigations about the mutant gene that causes abundance of amyloid plaques were conducted.

Then the scientists found that this gene, the gene encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP), sits in chromosome 21.

It's an autosomal dominant.

# To be continued to Part 2

## Previous postings:

Thursday 12 May 2022

In what chromosomes are the gene mutation related to Alzheimer's Disease? - Part 2 - Alzheimer's 5

You may read previous posting (Part 2):

Image 1. Chromosome 19 
 (Image from US National Library of Medicine)

Despite of the late onset Alzheimer's dementia causes are still unknown, but the scientists tend to say that it could be by a combination of:

- lifestyle
- environmental
- and genetic.

The specific genes that directly cause the late onset Alzheimer's disease is from Chromosome 19 (Please see Image 1).



Image 2- Walking Iris



Image 3- Red flower, just illustration

The genetic marker of Alzheimer's disease on chromosome 19 is APOE. The mutation in this chromosome cause increases Apolipoprotein E (APOE) that plays a big role in memory ability in aging.

For the early onset Alzheimer's disease comes about a person between thirties and mid-sixties is caused by genetic mutation.

The mutation was in the any one of number of different of single gene in any chromosome with number 1, 14, and 21.

In my opinion, this is one of interesting parts to understand Alzheimer's disease.

Isn’t it?

# Previous postings:

Wednesday 4 May 2022

In what chromosomes are the gene mutation related to Alzheimer's Disease? - Part 1 - Alzheimer's 5

In the postings (part 1 and 2), I have two images about chromosomes that related to Alzheimer's disease.



Image 1- Human chromosome with a combination of fluorescence dyes.

The image 1 above is an artificial line up of chromosome.

There are always in a pair to indicate one chromosome is from mother and another one is from father.

Every pair of chromosome is arranged based on their number and become a full set of 46 chromosome.

This arrangement is called karyotype. 



Image 2- Walking path, just illustration



Image 3- A bottle, just for illustration



Image 04- A little library at the corner

Karyotype arrangement to help to identify if there is variation in the specific chromosome (pair of chromosome)

Then, relevant scientists will try to find out whether variation refer to disorder or just normal.

The chromosomes are packages of long string of genes. A gene is a segment of DNA that contain the code for making a particular protein.

To identify for human chromosomes, we can see from the unique banding pattern. Some abnormalities or diseases can be learned from the bands.

# To be continued to Part 2

## Previous postings:

Thursday 28 April 2022

Can Alzheimer's Disease be Passing Down from Parent to Child? - Part 2 - Alzheimer's 4.

You may read previous post (Part 2):

- The Rainbow Before Evening : Can Alzheimer's Disease be Passing Down from Parent to Child? - Part 1 - Alzheimer's 4



Fig 01- A cute little cat, just for illustration

This inherit disease also called autosomal dominant trait.

It means one copy of an alter gene that cause a disease or disorder in one person is passed down from one of the affected parent.

A person who has biological mother or father suffers the early onset Alzheimer's disease, then this person has 50 percent chance for having the early onset Alzheimer's disease.



Fig 02- A little bird, fall down from sky



Fig 03- Blooming flower



Fig 04- Here the picture of autosomal dominant trait
(credit picture to NIH)

Sadly, if a person who has biological mother or father has a gene mutation of the early onset Alzheimer's, this person has 50 percent chance for having a gene mutation.

So, from the diagram above we can see how the genetic disease inherits from generation to the next generation.

Now, let's do math! If a mother (or father) has early-onset Alzheimer's disease has 2 children, one of the two will get Alzheimer's disease. When she/he has 4 children, then 2 of the children will have this disease,

Fortunately, this early-onset Alzheimer's disease is less common. There is 1 person from 10 person who suffer with Alzheimer's disease.

# Previous postings:

Thursday 21 April 2022

Can Alzheimer's Disease be Passing Down from Parent to Child? - Part 1 - Alzheimer's 4

The exact causes the Alzheimer's diseases are still unknown.

Some sources said many factors can contribute to the how this disease begins, and how it grows and develops.



Fig 01- Just for illustration (credit to s3.amazonaws.com).

Since the scientists conducted their Human Genome Project, they can decipher the puzzle of of codes in human genes, knowing:

- the sequence of genes
- mapping the location of genes
- and also the linked maps (inherit traits).

Alzheimer's disease was classified into two different onsets. The first one is early-onset Alzheimer's disease, the signs and symptoms of the early-onset show up when a person is about between thirties and mid-sixties of ages.



Fig 02- A fall down tree at neighborhood.



Fig 03- A meme (credit to s3.amazonaws.com)

Moreover, the second one is late-onset Alzheimer's disease. The signs and symptoms show up when a person is in the mid-sixties of ages.

Based on National Institute on Aging (NIA) at the National Institute Health (NIH), USA that the Alzheimer's disease in the early onset is one of some inherit genetic disorders.

The early onset of Alzheimer's disease can be passed down from parents to their children.

What?

# To be continued to Part 2

## Previous postings:

Tuesday 5 April 2022

How did Alzheimer find out the change in his patient's brain? - Part 2 - Alzheimer's 3

You may read previous posting (Part 1):

- How did Alzheimer find out the change in his patient's brain? - Part 1 - Alzheimer's 3



Fig 01- Example photo brain tissue by using fluorescence micrograph
(Picture from sciencephoto.com)

Nissl discovered what we have known as Endoplasmic Reticulum. In the past this organelle also called Nissl body.

In the lab that coordinated by Dr. Alzheimer, some sources mention Alzheimer team, including H-G Crcutzfeld and A. Jakob.

Based on their (H-G Crcutzfeld and A. Jakob.) finding, we got understanding about mad cow that also called Jab Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD).

The disease caused by eating bad meat or the meat from the cattle that infected by a certain disease.



Fig 02- Crowd of people



Fig 03- Beans, illustration only



Fig 04- Rose in the yard



Fig 05- People in an event, just for illustration

Another a brilliant person who had been worked in the same lab was Frederic Henry Lewey. He discovered Lewy bodies, then we known as Lewy body dementia.

The common clinical manisfestation for with Lewy body are disturbance in thinking, memory and movement (motor control).

Lewy body dementia (LBD) is a kind of dementia which associated with abnormal deposits of a protein (alpha-synuclein) in the brain.

It is the second most common type of progressive dementia after Alzheimer's disease dementia.

So Dr. Alzheimer found the brain feature of a kind dementia by staining brain tissue of his patient.

# Previous postings:

The Minorca Rooster and Leghorn Hens - Nature 125

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