Showing posts with label Alzheimer. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Alzheimer. Show all posts

Thursday, 12 May 2022

In what chromosomes are the gene mutation related to Alzheimer's Disease? - Part 2 - Alzheimer's 5

You may read previous posting (Part 2):

Image 1. Chromosome 19 
 (Image from US National Library of Medicine)

Despite of the late onset Alzheimer's dementia causes are still unknown, but the scientists tend to say that it could be by a combination of:

- lifestyle
- environmental
- and genetic.

The specific genes that directly cause the late onset Alzheimer's disease is from Chromosome 19 (Please see Image 1).



Image 2- Walking Iris



Image 3- Red flower, just illustration

The genetic marker of Alzheimer's disease on chromosome 19 is APOE. The mutation in this chromosome cause increases Apolipoprotein E (APOE) that plays a big role in memory ability in aging.

For the early onset Alzheimer's disease comes about a person between thirties and mid-sixties is caused by genetic mutation.

The mutation was in the any one of number of different of single gene in any chromosome with number 1, 14, and 21.

In my opinion, this is one of interesting parts to understand Alzheimer's disease.

Isn’t it?

# Previous postings:

Wednesday, 4 May 2022

In what chromosomes are the gene mutation related to Alzheimer's Disease? - Part 1 - Alzheimer's 5

In the postings (part 1 and 2), I have two images about chromosomes that related to Alzheimer's disease.



Image 1- Human chromosome with a combination of fluorescence dyes.

The image 1 above is an artificial line up of chromosome.

There are always in a pair to indicate one chromosome is from mother and another one is from father.

Every pair of chromosome is arranged based on their number and become a full set of 46 chromosome.

This arrangement is called karyotype. 



Image 2- Walking path, just illustration



Image 3- A bottle, just for illustration



Image 04- A little library at the corner

Karyotype arrangement to help to identify if there is variation in the specific chromosome (pair of chromosome)

Then, relevant scientists will try to find out whether variation refer to disorder or just normal.

The chromosomes are packages of long string of genes. A gene is a segment of DNA that contain the code for making a particular protein.

To identify for human chromosomes, we can see from the unique banding pattern. Some abnormalities or diseases can be learned from the bands.

# To be continued to Part 2

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Thursday, 28 April 2022

Can Alzheimer's Disease be Passing Down from Parent to Child? - Part 2 - Alzheimer's 4.

You may read previous post (Part 2):

- The Rainbow Before Evening : Can Alzheimer's Disease be Passing Down from Parent to Child? - Part 1 - Alzheimer's 4



Fig 01- A cute little cat, just for illustration

This inherit disease also called autosomal dominant trait.

It means one copy of an alter gene that cause a disease or disorder in one person is passed down from one of the affected parent.

A person who has biological mother or father suffers the early onset Alzheimer's disease, then this person has 50 percent chance for having the early onset Alzheimer's disease.



Fig 02- A little bird, fall down from sky



Fig 03- Blooming flower



Fig 04- Here the picture of autosomal dominant trait
(credit picture to NIH)

Sadly, if a person who has biological mother or father has a gene mutation of the early onset Alzheimer's, this person has 50 percent chance for having a gene mutation.

So, from the diagram above we can see how the genetic disease inherits from generation to the next generation.

Now, let's do math! If a mother (or father) has early-onset Alzheimer's disease has 2 children, one of the two will get Alzheimer's disease. When she/he has 4 children, then 2 of the children will have this disease,

Fortunately, this early-onset Alzheimer's disease is less common. There is 1 person from 10 person who suffer with Alzheimer's disease.

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Thursday, 21 April 2022

Can Alzheimer's Disease be Passing Down from Parent to Child? - Part 1 - Alzheimer's 4

The exact causes the Alzheimer's diseases are still unknown.

Some sources said many factors can contribute to the how this disease begins, and how it grows and develops.



Fig 01- Just for illustration (credit to s3.amazonaws.com).

Since the scientists conducted their Human Genome Project, they can decipher the puzzle of of codes in human genes, knowing:

- the sequence of genes
- mapping the location of genes
- and also the linked maps (inherit traits).

Alzheimer's disease was classified into two different onsets. The first one is early-onset Alzheimer's disease, the signs and symptoms of the early-onset show up when a person is about between thirties and mid-sixties of ages.



Fig 02- A fall down tree at neighborhood.



Fig 03- A meme (credit to s3.amazonaws.com)

Moreover, the second one is late-onset Alzheimer's disease. The signs and symptoms show up when a person is in the mid-sixties of ages.

Based on National Institute on Aging (NIA) at the National Institute Health (NIH), USA that the Alzheimer's disease in the early onset is one of some inherit genetic disorders.

The early onset of Alzheimer's disease can be passed down from parents to their children.

What?

# To be continued to Part 2

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Tuesday, 5 April 2022

How did Alzheimer find out the change in his patient's brain? - Part 2 - Alzheimer's 3

You may read previous posting (Part 1):

- How did Alzheimer find out the change in his patient's brain? - Part 1 - Alzheimer's 3



Fig 01- Example photo brain tissue by using fluorescence micrograph
(Picture from sciencephoto.com)

Nissl discovered what we have known as Endoplasmic Reticulum. In the past this organelle also called Nissl body.

In the lab that coordinated by Dr. Alzheimer, some sources mention Alzheimer team, including H-G Crcutzfeld and A. Jakob.

Based on their (H-G Crcutzfeld and A. Jakob.) finding, we got understanding about mad cow that also called Jab Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD).

The disease caused by eating bad meat or the meat from the cattle that infected by a certain disease.



Fig 02- Crowd of people



Fig 03- Beans, illustration only



Fig 04- Rose in the yard



Fig 05- People in an event, just for illustration

Another a brilliant person who had been worked in the same lab was Frederic Henry Lewey. He discovered Lewy bodies, then we known as Lewy body dementia.

The common clinical manisfestation for with Lewy body are disturbance in thinking, memory and movement (motor control).

Lewy body dementia (LBD) is a kind of dementia which associated with abnormal deposits of a protein (alpha-synuclein) in the brain.

It is the second most common type of progressive dementia after Alzheimer's disease dementia.

So Dr. Alzheimer found the brain feature of a kind dementia by staining brain tissue of his patient.

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Monday, 14 March 2022

How did Alzheimer find out the change in his patient's brain? - Part 1 - Alzheimer's 3

As you might know that Alzheimer's disease is the kind of dementia that has specific:

- signs

- and symptoms.



Fig 01- Nissl-stained in the brain tissue
(Picture from Neuroscience, Purves, et al)

Based on clinical research a patient who has dementia with Alzheimer's disease, in their brain has accumulation of:

- neurofibrillary tangles
- and amyloid plaques.

This disease got the name after a Germany physician and clinical psychiatrist, and also conducted some research related to brain disorders, Dr Alois Alzheimer.



Fig 02- Hit by car, just for illustration



Fig 03- Wild flower, illustration



Fig 04 – Just for fun



Fig 05- Decorative wood

Dr. Alzheimer was excited about working in the laboratory.

Franz Nissl who discovered a special staining technique became Dr. Alzheimer coworker and then also taught him about staining.

As we know at that time staining in the lab would helped the scientists to discover new finding in the organelles of the human body.

He worked with Nissl for couple years before Nissl moved out for better facility in his research.

However, they kept in touch being the best friend forever.

# To be continued to Part 2

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Tuesday, 1 February 2022

The Early Person who Diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Diseases - Part 2 – Alzheimer's 2

He found “dramatic brain shrinkage and abnormal deposits in and around nerve cells.”



Fig 01- Histopathology of Alzheimer's diseases
(Picture from Neuroscience, Purves, et al)

Brain shrinkage and the abnormal deposit in this day are called amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles.

From the picture, the yellow color are neurofibrillary tangles, and brown dark are amyloid plaques.

Specifically, it is in the neocortex, amygdala, and brainstem

The causes of Alzheimer's Disease is not fully understand yet.



Fig 02- Hot sauce, illustration only



Fig 03- Pomegranate, just for illustration

There are three principle features could be detected in every person who severe with the Alzheimer's disease:

1) Collection of intra-neuronal cytoskeletal filaments or neurofibrillary tangles, also we know as aggregate tau protein in the brain.

- tau protein to maintain microtubules steadiness in axons.

2) extracellular deposit of an abnormal amyloid or amyloid plaques.

3) A diffuse loss of neurons.

- The accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques lead to death of neuron cells so that the brain became shrinkage.

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Sunday, 16 January 2022

The Early Person who Diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Diseases - Part 1 – Alzheimer's 2

It's over than one century since a German physician and psychiatrist, Alois Alzheimer, observed his own patient with suffered loss of memory and language ability.


Dr. Alois Alzheimer, a German neurologist
(source: The Neurology Lounge)

She (the patient) also had:

- hallucinations
- delusions
- and cognitive impairment.

She was only 51 year-old and too early to had a dementia, so she was diagnosed as presenile dementia.

The presenile dementia is dementia that happen in early age, before senile age. Senile dementia occurs with patients after 65 years old.


Fig 02- Library sign, hit by car, illustration


Fig 03- Falling tree, illustration only

Dr. Alzheimer identified and described her psychological and behavioral, then when the patient passed away, Dr Alzheimer ask her family to autopsy her brain.

He took her brain to laboratory and did staining to get observation in her nervous system.

Fortunately, at that time the research methods using stain was developed quite well and the result was satisfy.

The staining was able to visualize the nerve cells.

# To be continued to Part 2

Monday, 20 December 2021

The signs of late stage of Alzheimer's Disease – Part 2 - Alzheimer's 1

Claire believe it depends on how we talk to him, they always try to turn his attention into another one, and keep him with the activities that he able to do it.


Fig 01- Illustration only (credit to Google)

He wandered and did flip the time.

He sleeps tightly at day time and awake at all night long.

It was a little hard when he insisted to get out of house in the middle night to go church for Mass.

Every time he want to go church, he tried to get up, pulled the handle door, but the door had been locked and he kicked the door, screamed that he would be late to go Mass.

Spring, I didn't meet Claire. 


Fig 02- A book cover, illustration


Fig 03- Lily flowers in the garden

Summer.

I heard from Claire that his uncle in the late stage Alzheimer's (Stage 7 or severe decline). Some important signs of the late stage Alzheimer's are:

1) He lose words and he is not able to talk.
2) He has difficulty to swallow.
3) He eat pureed meal and drink thick liquid.
4) He has infection of pneumonia.
5) He has trouble in breathing and need breathing treatments.
6) Hospice is taking care of him.
7) He behaves well, quite, and calm.

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Thursday, 16 December 2021

The signs of late stage of Alzheimer's Disease – Part 1 - Alzheimer's 1

It was late Winter when I went to Claire's house.

Chilled outside but in the house was warm enough.

I saw an electric fireplace was on. Claire's uncle was sitting on his wheelchair in front of the fireplace. He was a big guy, and turned around.


Fig 01- A house, just for illustration

When he saw me, he unlocked his chair and get couples of little steps toward me and he moved his right hand toward me.

I thought he want to greet me by hand shaking, but he pulled my hand and kissed it.

He always did the same things to every woman. Women only. He can recognize between man and woman.

Not always! Because he ask about me to his nurse aid, “Who's the man?” I guessed he didn't see my ponytail.


Fig 02- White flowers


Fig 03- An electric fireplace (Photo: Overstock)

He went back to his spot, in front of fireplace. He tried unbutton his top pajama, and took it off.

He wanted to put top pajama on through his feet. Claire came to him and fixed it.

He counted his pajama buttons, “One, two, three, four!” And he said, “Four!”

His nurse aid said, “Yes, you have four buttons.” He recount again and tell her, recount again and tell her, again, and again.

I ask Claire that is he easy get upset, angry, mad, or fight?

# To be continued to Part 2

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