Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts

Saturday, 11 December 2021

Could Botulinum Toxin be Turned to Beneficial Substance? - Part 4 – Science 10

You may read the previous postinga (Part 1, 2 and 3):
- Could Botulinum Toxin be Turned to Beneficial Substance? - Part 1 – Science 10

Fig 01- Rice, a dish in many countries.

Why does the toxin lethal and deadly?

The toxin can cause the paralysis of peripheral neuromuscular junction, which is the junction between our nerve to the muscle.

The muscle or striated muscle will excited whenever the nerve release chemical substance acetylcholine.

Botulinum then inactive the protein that regulate release of acetylcholine. Because acetylcholine releasing is prevented by toxin, the muscle cannot excite anymore and becomes paralyze.

Fig 02- Chocolate, an illustration

Fig 03- Pickled eggs

Fig 04- Meat products and an egg

Fig 05- Seafood products at the market

Good news that engineers turned this lethal toxin to beneficial substance for many purposes.

The purified protein of botulinum toxin when administered by injection into the muscle, it can cause local paralyze.

Based on the concepts, this toxin is used in pharmacology for:

- certain disorders
- and also for specifically anti-wrinkle.

Now, I understand that botulinum toxin can be used:

- to cure and heal some diseases
- for cosmetic such as face rejuvenation.

# Previous postings:

Wednesday, 8 December 2021

Changes of Parents Behaviors When Caring a Baby – Part 2 - Science 11

You may read the previous post (Part 1):

Interestingly, female as well as male have the same changes when they take care the infants.

Fig 01- Decoration, just for fun

The changes in respects to:

- brain regions
- and hormonal activities

Their behavior’s changes to deal with new reality that is development of newborns in term of:

- crying
- hearing
- breathing
- sleeping
- reflexes
- and vision.

Fig 02- A cute rabbit, illustration

Fig 03- Painting by Ruth Stuart, local artist

Fig 04- A horse and baby, painted by Ruth Stuart

Fig 05- A little girl and a baby, painted by Ruth Stuart

However, as suggested by Johnston-Ataata and Kokanovic (2014) that most parents have wrong perceptions about having a new baby:

1) Parents misled by social romantic that are both parents and babies will have strong or perfect bonding instantly.

2) Parenthood is wonderful and joyful life event. The perceptions are totally different with reality sometimes.

# Previous postings:

Johnston-Ataata, K and Kokanovic, R. (2014, October 2). “Most new parents are totally unprepared for their new babies.” Retrieved from Washington Post.

Monday, 6 December 2021

Could Botulinum Toxin be Turned to Beneficial Substance? - Part 3 – Science 10

You may read previous postings (Part 1 and Part 2):

Fig 01- Fish balls, illustration.

As we know botulinum toxic have been identified as Foodborne botulism, Wound botulism, Infant botulism and Inhalation botulism.

1) Food borne botulism.

- It occurs by consuming food that contaminate with this kind of bacteria or their spore.
- The spore can germinate and produce toxin too.

2) Wound botulism

- It could be caused by the wound infection
- The open wound infected by the spores or bacteria.

Fig 02- Canned mackerel

Fig 03- Wild flower, just for illustration

Fig 04- Quesadilla, ready to consume

Fig 05- Processing food

3) Infant botulism.

- The baby ingests the spore and then in the baby's gut bacteria grow and release toxin.
- It infects the baby under 6 months.

4) Inhalation botulism

- when the person inhaled the botulinum concentrate (aerosolized), It intents to biology weapon or bioterrorism.

# To be continued to Part 4

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Friday, 3 December 2021

Parents Behaviors When Caring a Baby – Part 1 - Science 11

Behavioral changes that define parenting are important for “successful” of future generations in life of any creatures, especially mammals.

Mother and father have different roles to raise their children.

Fig 01- Parents and a kid (credit to freepik).

Even though mother is dominant to accomplish care of young, but if father involve in caring a baby or babies, thus both parents have similar paternal and maternal behaviors.

Maternal behaviors in mammals may start before deliver baby to caring to parenting such as:

- nest building
- aggressive to intruders
- eating birth debris
- grooming and licking
- pups cleaning
- and nursing (breastfeeding).

Fig 02- Plant decoration, illustration

Fig 03- Walking path in the city

Fig 04- A doll, illustration only

Except breastfeeding, all these maternal behaviors could be done by father as well.

In case of human, in social context, especially in developing nations, parenting not only responsible to mother and father, but also to older brothers and sisters.

In many cases grandparents involve too.

Unrelated adults take care other’s offspring sometimes.

# To be continued to Part 2

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Tuesday, 30 November 2021

Could Botulinum Toxin be Turned to Beneficial Substance? - Part 2 – Science 10

You may read the previous post (Part 1): Could Botulinum Toxin be Turned to Beneficial Substance? - Part 1 – Science 10

We may find Botulinum toxin in many kinds of foods such as preserved vegetables, fish (processing or preserved) and meat products.

Fig 01- A processing food, illustration

There are plenty of preserved vegetables in the market, several of them such as:

- green beans
- spinach
- mushrooms
- and beets

Examples of fish (processing or preserved):

- canned tuna,
- fermented
- salted and smoked fish

Fig 02- Mushroom is ready to cook

Fig 03- Salt fish on the plate

Fig 04- Fermented food, illustration

Fig 05- Preserved vegetable.

Few meat products such as:

- ham
- and sausage.

This toxin can cause:

1) seizure and dead
- because it impacts nervous system.

2) flaccid paralysis that leads to respiratory failure

- because diaphragm muscle, and muscle related to breathing process becomes weak and paralyze.

# To be continued to Part 3

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Thursday, 25 November 2021

Could Botulinum Toxin be Turned to Beneficial Substance? - Part 1 – Science 10

Fig 01- Honey can be contaminated by botulinum toxin bacteria

I'm still excited about botulinum toxin, since I know that botulinum toxin is a potent and deadly substance.

This substance produced by a kind of a rod bacteria that can exist in low or free oxygen, Clostridium botulinum.

Bacteria are very common throughout the world, they could be found in samples or contaminate of:

- water
- soil
- canned foods
- honey

It was many years ago, especially in the under developing countries, the toxin was a killer that hard to overcome.

Clostridium botulinum release toxin that able to kill human.

What are the symptoms of this toxin?

Fig 02- A traditional dish

Fig 03- A drink with chia seed

Fig 04- Meat products could be contaminated by bacteria.

The early of symptoms of this Botulinum lethal toxin could be many, but some of them are:

- fatigue
- weak
- blurry eyes
- and vertigo.

Following by difficult to swallow and speak, also vomiting and diarrhea or constipation.

Then it can radiate to weakness in the neck and arms, and muscle in lower part of body.

# To be continued to Part 2

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Thursday, 18 November 2021

Overdosing Epidemic Caused 100,000 Died in the USA – Science 9

Fig 01- Urine drug test sold in Walmart, just illustration

Based on report by Center for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC, 2021) that overdosing drug use reaches 100,000 died from April 2020 to April 2021. The highest recorded ever.

There are many drugs are consumed overdoses, 10 of them caused death frequently.

These drugs include in the 3 categories, they are opioids, benzodiazepines and stimulants.

Opioids drugs are:

- fentanyl
- heroin
- oxycodone
- methadone
- morphine
- hydrocodone

Fig 02- One of medical centers to serve people health

Two benzodiazepines which are used overdoses:

- alprazolam
- and diazepam

Fig 03- Gnomen clature, illustration

Stimulant drugs are:

- cocaine
- and methamphetamine

Fig 04- One of rehabilitation centers for drug abuses

Drug abuses lead to dead has increased dramatically, about 30% compared to last year.

The question then, why so many people abused drugs in this year?

The simple answer and main reason due Covid 19 pandemic. People getting stress and stress:

- higher unemployment
- lock down

How about with your places or countries? Are there drug overdose problems?

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Monday, 18 October 2021

What is Knockout Animals ? - Part 2- Science 8

A cat sitting on the chair, just for illustration

Previous posting (Part 1):

Sure, a knocked out gene has two sides:

- advantages
- disadvantages

One of important advantages is that a researcher knows which factor precisely in determining animal behavior, in this case a certain behavior of mice.

Another advantage, researchers could decide the exact time to disrupt a specific gene. The timing is important to conduct behavior experiments in the laboratory.

However, there are several disadvantages, some of them:

1) Expensive economically

- a lot of labors (labor consuming) include culturing of stem cell

2) Gene knockout may lethal to embryo development.

- hence, animal can’t reach adulthood.

3) May incomplete knockout process

4) Disruption of genes may overlap.

5) A knockout gene may develop cancer in certain tissues of mice.

# Previous postings:

Reducing Number of Amazon River Pink Dolphin? - Part 1 – Nature 17

I just knew there are pink dolphins when I watched the news about burning of Amazon rain forest years ago. Pink dolphins look exotic and l...