Showing posts with label Brain Plasticity. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Brain Plasticity. Show all posts

Saturday, 25 March 2023

Social Status Effect on Physiology and Behaviors – Part 2 – Brain Plasticity 3

You may read the previous post (Part 1):

- The Rainbow Before Evening : Social Status Affects on Physiology and Behaviors – Part 1 – Brain Plasticity 3

Image 1- A cat, just illustration

Visually, the absent of higher social male will be replaced in minutes. The subordinate will look brighter and change behavior immediately as a new dominant male.

Only one dominant male in one specific area, apparently, the other males (subordinates) no change in terms of colors and behaviors.

Alcazar et al (2016) suggested that while establishing a territory, a cichlid male will escalate his aggression behaviors and efforts to court females at optimal numbers as possible.

Image 2- A bird, illustration

This aggression male tends to spend more times by attacking other subordinate males in the area. The aggressive behaviors were followed by increasing level of cortisol, estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone physiologically.

Image 3- People gathering, illustration


Alcazar, RM., Becker, L., Hilliard, AT., Kent, KR and Fernald, RD. (2016, August 15). Two types of dominant male cichlid fish: behavioral and hormonal characteristics. Biol Open. 2016 Aug 15; 5(8): 1061–1071.

Image 4- Green yard, just for illustration

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Sunday, 26 February 2023

Social Status Affects on Physiology and Behaviors – Part 1 – Brain Plasticity 3

For human being, it is well known that social status will lead to success in mating, interestingly so does in animal’s world.

Image 1- Dominant male in animals (credit to pnas,org)

Higher social status or called as social dominant of animals be able to control their fertility or their reproduction.

On contrary, lower social status ones have no interest to control territory, thus less mature in respect to the sexual activity.

In fish, social status regulated reproduction of male cichlids, those who are in higher rank position will success in mating.

However, the status could be replaced either by forces (coup de tat or dethroned) or by peace (absent due to naturally died).

Image 2- Slices of pumpkin, illustration only

Physiologically, a part of brain that control neuron will ask to release reproductive hormone called Gonadotropin.

As you know Gonadotropin is a hormone or several hormones to invigorating sex glands in order to perform reproduction.

Image 3- Painted by Ruth Stuart, a local artist

# To be continued to Part 2

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Sunday, 12 February 2023

Brain Changes during Reproduction Process – Part 3 – Brain Plasticity 2

You may read the previous posts (Part 2 and 3):

Image 1- Decoupage eggs, just illustration

Previous belief that decreases maternal brain size will reduce learning capacity and the memory, but the understanding is reverse based on the recently observations.

In fact, hippocampus gets boosting, thus increase mother thinking ability during pregnancy.

In case of rats, not only increasing of neuronal activities, but also physical capabilities. Surprisingly, pregnant rats (carrying offspring) are faster to catch their prey than virginal rodents. Even 4 to 5 times faster.

Image 2- The Peony, illustration only

This is in parts of better visual, better motivation (courage) and can handle difficult conditions.

Image 3- The Native American pottery, illustration

In conclusion, maternity brings changes to neuro, physio and physical of animal in order for survival of both mothers and their offspring. Mother “well-being” will have positive impacts on their children development.

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Thursday, 12 January 2023

Brain Changes during Reproduction Process – Part 2 – Brain Plasticity 2

You may read the previous post (Part 1):

- Brain Changes during Reproduction Process – Part 1 – Brain Plasticity 2

Image 1- Grass in the winter

In respect to human brain parts, scientists have been observed changes in the areas of:

- amygdala
- and hippocampus.

Both amygdala and hippocampus are part of limbic system which occupy below cortex and above brain stem.

Image 2- Activities at community, illustration

Just few examples, they are responsible for emotions, survival instincts, motivation and memory.

Image 3- Just illustration

The learning capacity, memory and emotional responsible are the three main function of hippocampus.

This brain structure is complex and quite easy to be damaged by many factors. The damages may lead to several disorders, mainly relate to psychological or neurological disorders.

Image 4- A truck, just for illustration

The main function of amygdala is to control emotional changes such as to respond threatening (dangerous) stimuli,

In addition, amygdala induces hormone productions of stress, anxiety and fear reductions.

# To be continued to part 3

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Tuesday, 13 December 2022

Brain Changes during Reproduction Process – Part 1 – Brain Plasticity 2

Body requires adaptation during pregnancy for offspring’s demand by modification behavior of emotional and foraging.

Image 1- Areas of amygdala and hippocampus (credit to Google)

Many animals such as Deer mouse of California with scientific name Peromyscus californicus have experienced parenting neuroplasticity until late adulthood,

Unexpectedly, these experiences happen to both male and female even though male never got pregnancy.

Brain plasticity during reproduction period in animals has multiple purposes either relate to baby directly or not.

Image 2- Christmas decoration, illustration

Few examples of brain plasticity with relate between parents to their baby include:

- sensitivity to baby’s odors.
- to care of offspring

Image 3- A house decoration at our neighborhood

However, parents for some animals to adapt long-fasting, a kind of Ramadhan fasting. Sure, they will loss weight, but improve some their physiology conditions.

Image 4- Street in the morning, illustration

Other critters have developed their brain plasticity during reproduction process:

- to protect memory deficits
- to improve of maternal visual system

# To be continued to part 2

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Friday, 18 November 2022

What is Brain Plasticity? - Part 2 – Brain Plasticity 1

You may read previous post (Part 1):

- What is Brain Plasticity? - Part 1 – Brain Plasticity 1

Image 1- Just for illustration

Our brain has many parts in which each part has its own functions or authorities. There is a part to control movement of right-hand motions (maneuvers) as a simple example.

If there is disturbance to control movement due to gene, thus we can understand why people use their left hand skillfully.

In current understanding that interrelation between sense, cognition and memory is so close.

 Image 2- A green field, illustration only

Let’s say if we have weakness in a sense that will affect to cognition and memory, and then, even if one got deterioration will affect other senses as well.

Image 3- Yard decoration, illustration only

They are so interdependence. We can see older people who easy to forget a little thing.

It is fact that their senses (feeling, hearing, seeing) not well function anymore, thus they are less able to store their experience images, then get trouble to recall those images after a while.

# Previous posting:


Banks, D. (2016, April 4). “What is brain plasticity and why is it so important?” Retrieved from “theconversation.”

Monday, 7 November 2022

What is Brain Plasticity? - Part 1 – Brain Plasticity 1

We may think, plasticity refers to plastic, an elastic material or things that can be bending.

Image 1- Brain plasticity (credit to “learning-mind /brain-plasticity”)

In case of brain plasticity, the meaning is “changing” of brain due to internal and external factors.

As we grow in respect to whatever, the brain is “growing” as well, this could be said as “changing.”

The brain keeps changing made us able to face new experiences in our daily life.

One day, we face difficulty with new things, it is because our brain capability has been declined.

Image 2- People saw some plants

We know that older persons get problem to adapt to new environments, and even not so interest to learn new methods.

Image 3- Just for illustration

It is important as said by Banks (2016) for brain to have ability to re-wire or modify itself. This ability makes us be human, develop from childhood to adulthood.

Another special ability is that brain could re-routing the signal pathways if one neural pathway was error. The ability significantly distinguishes between brain and computer, where computer just have parallel motor and sensory signals.

# To be continued to Part 2

## Previous postings:

Spring Hummingbirds in Our Neighborhood – Nature 58

We posted the winter hummingbird in our areas previously:  - The Rainbow Before Evening : The Winter Hummingbird at Our Community – Science...