Showing posts with label Brain Plasticity. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Brain Plasticity. Show all posts

Friday 25 August 2023

Brain Plasticity and Care Offspring – Part 2 - Brain Plasticity 4




Image 1 - A bunny on the grass, a crochet

In mother side, lactation means increasing of Glucocorticoid levels. Glucocorticoid is a type of steroid hormone that is produced by the adrenal glands, which has function to manage carbohydrates, fats and proteins level in the body. 


One of important functions of oxytocin is to make process of birth to be smooth by stimulation of urine muscle contraction. In social aspects, oxytocin is key hormone, since this hormone play role in social contact between parents and child.   


The ability of the brain to adapt to a new condition is an important factor to success in the parenting.


Image 2 - A bunny girl, just illustration

It is well known that parenthood caused major changes in parents in terms of identity, responsibility and roles. This period is called a stressful time with uncertainty at some points. Other factors such as characteristics of both parents and child should be considered as part of fundamental factors to be successful in parenting. 


Image 3- Three bunnies, ready to play

# Previous postings:

Sunday 30 April 2023

Brain Plasticity and Care Offspring – Part 1 - Brain Plasticity 4

Stress is one of important experiences for parents to have a baby. But, parenting provides other opportunities such as learning and enrichment.



Image 1- Maternal and brain plasticity 
(credit to Semanticscholar).

These experiences would change the parent’s brain significantly. Hormonal changes have impacted on the brain region that relates to mood and cognitive adjustment or adaptation.

During pregnancy, parturition and lactation, then followed by mother and infant contact will influence female hormones.

During these important periods, hormones were regulated by decreasing estrogen, but increasing prolactin and oxytocin. The expression of parenting was indicated by present of prolactin and oxytocin in substantial amount.



Image 2- Crowd of people on the street

Prolactin and oxytocin hormones collaborate to maintain feeling and milk production during care offspring.

In specific, hormone of prolactin is to elevate lactation activity. The lactation is processing to produce milk, where milk is pivotal for a baby to develop immune system.



Image 3- Colorful flowers, illustration

# To be continued to Part 2

## Previous postings:

Saturday 25 March 2023

Social Status Effect on Physiology and Behaviors – Part 2 – Brain Plasticity 3

You may read the previous post (Part 1):

- The Rainbow Before Evening : Social Status Affects on Physiology and Behaviors – Part 1 – Brain Plasticity 3



Image 1- A cat, just illustration

Visually, the absent of higher social male will be replaced in minutes. The subordinate will look brighter and change behavior immediately as a new dominant male.

Only one dominant male in one specific area, apparently, the other males (subordinates) no change in terms of colors and behaviors.

Alcazar et al (2016) suggested that while establishing a territory, a cichlid male will escalate his aggression behaviors and efforts to court females at optimal numbers as possible.



Image 2- A bird, illustration

This aggression male tends to spend more times by attacking other subordinate males in the area. The aggressive behaviors were followed by increasing level of cortisol, estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone physiologically.



Image 3- People gathering, illustration

Reference

Alcazar, RM., Becker, L., Hilliard, AT., Kent, KR and Fernald, RD. (2016, August 15). Two types of dominant male cichlid fish: behavioral and hormonal characteristics. Biol Open. 2016 Aug 15; 5(8): 1061–1071.



Image 4- Green yard, just for illustration

# Previous postings:

Sunday 26 February 2023

Social Status Affects on Physiology and Behaviors – Part 1 – Brain Plasticity 3

For human being, it is well known that social status will lead to success in mating, interestingly so does in animal’s world.



Image 1- Dominant male in animals (credit to pnas,org)

Higher social status or called as social dominant of animals be able to control their fertility or their reproduction.

On contrary, lower social status ones have no interest to control territory, thus less mature in respect to the sexual activity.

In fish, social status regulated reproduction of male cichlids, those who are in higher rank position will success in mating.

However, the status could be replaced either by forces (coup de tat or dethroned) or by peace (absent due to naturally died).



Image 2- Slices of pumpkin, illustration only

Physiologically, a part of brain that control neuron will ask to release reproductive hormone called Gonadotropin.

As you know Gonadotropin is a hormone or several hormones to invigorating sex glands in order to perform reproduction.



Image 3- Painted by Ruth Stuart, a local artist

# To be continued to Part 2

## Previous postings:

Sunday 12 February 2023

Brain Changes during Reproduction Process – Part 3 – Brain Plasticity 2

You may read the previous posts (Part 2 and 3):



Image 1- Decoupage eggs, just illustration

Previous belief that decreases maternal brain size will reduce learning capacity and the memory, but the understanding is reverse based on the recently observations.

In fact, hippocampus gets boosting, thus increase mother thinking ability during pregnancy.

In case of rats, not only increasing of neuronal activities, but also physical capabilities. Surprisingly, pregnant rats (carrying offspring) are faster to catch their prey than virginal rodents. Even 4 to 5 times faster.



Image 2- The Peony, illustration only

This is in parts of better visual, better motivation (courage) and can handle difficult conditions.



Image 3- The Native American pottery, illustration

In conclusion, maternity brings changes to neuro, physio and physical of animal in order for survival of both mothers and their offspring. Mother “well-being” will have positive impacts on their children development.

# Previous postings:

Thursday 12 January 2023

Brain Changes during Reproduction Process – Part 2 – Brain Plasticity 2

You may read the previous post (Part 1):

- Brain Changes during Reproduction Process – Part 1 – Brain Plasticity 2



Image 1- Grass in the winter

In respect to human brain parts, scientists have been observed changes in the areas of:

- amygdala
- and hippocampus.

Both amygdala and hippocampus are part of limbic system which occupy below cortex and above brain stem.



Image 2- Activities at community, illustration

Just few examples, they are responsible for emotions, survival instincts, motivation and memory.



Image 3- Just illustration

The learning capacity, memory and emotional responsible are the three main function of hippocampus.

This brain structure is complex and quite easy to be damaged by many factors. The damages may lead to several disorders, mainly relate to psychological or neurological disorders.



Image 4- A truck, just for illustration

The main function of amygdala is to control emotional changes such as to respond threatening (dangerous) stimuli,

In addition, amygdala induces hormone productions of stress, anxiety and fear reductions.

# To be continued to part 3

## Previous postings:

Tuesday 13 December 2022

Brain Changes during Reproduction Process – Part 1 – Brain Plasticity 2

Body requires adaptation during pregnancy for offspring’s demand by modification behavior of emotional and foraging.



Image 1- Areas of amygdala and hippocampus (credit to Google)

Many animals such as Deer mouse of California with scientific name Peromyscus californicus have experienced parenting neuroplasticity until late adulthood,

Unexpectedly, these experiences happen to both male and female even though male never got pregnancy.

Brain plasticity during reproduction period in animals has multiple purposes either relate to baby directly or not.



Image 2- Christmas decoration, illustration

Few examples of brain plasticity with relate between parents to their baby include:

- sensitivity to baby’s odors.
- to care of offspring



Image 3- A house decoration at our neighborhood

However, parents for some animals to adapt long-fasting, a kind of Ramadhan fasting. Sure, they will loss weight, but improve some their physiology conditions.



Image 4- Street in the morning, illustration

Other critters have developed their brain plasticity during reproduction process:

- to protect memory deficits
- to improve of maternal visual system

# To be continued to part 2

## Previous postings:

Blooming of Gloriosa Lilly - Nature 135

Temperature is getting higher, more than 85* F (30* C) in our areas, hence it is good time for tropical origin flowers to bloom. Image - Blo...